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Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

  There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of governmental units (state and statistics come from the same Latin root, status) and a gentlemanly gambling father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses-all of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability.

  Descriptive statistics involves tabulating, depicting, and describing collections of data. These data may be either quantitative, such as measures of height, intelligence, or grade level-variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum-or the data many represent qualitative variables, such as sex, college major, or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reducing to comprehensibly form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data.

  Inferential statistics is a formalized body of methods for solving another class of problems that present great difficulties for the unaided human mind. This general class of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. For example, a school superintendent wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary and inefficiency to question each child; the proportion for the entire district could be estimated fairly accurately from a sample of as few as 100 children. Thus, the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population.

  31.What is the passage mainly concerned with?

  A) Development and application of statistics.

  B) Origin of descriptive statistics.

  C) Limitations of inferential statistics.

  D) Importance of statistics.

  32.Describing and tabulating are associated with ____.

  A) inferential statistics

  B) descriptive statistics

  C) theories of probability

  D) inefficiency of counting

  33.Which of the following statements is true about descriptive statistics?

  A) It combines quantitative variables and qualitative variables.

  B) It can be used to deal with only quantitative variables.

  C) It helps to summarize properties of a group of data.

  D) It helps to make predictions using a sample of observations.

? ? ? 34.The word "unwieldy" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to ____.

  A) difficult to collect   B) difficult to tackle

  C) incomprehensive  D) uncontrollable

  35.A sample of a population is often examined for the following purposes except ____.

  A) to make a more accurate prediction of trend

  B) to improve efficiency and avoid unnecessary work

  C) to save the trouble of approaching every members

  D) to predict characteristics of the entire population

【参考答案】

31.【答案】A。

  【译文】本文主要讲述什么?

  【试题分析】典型的归纳概括题,要求考生归纳总结文章的中心思想。

  【详细解答】首先细想一下全文的内容概要,再看四个选项。A)"统计学的发展与应用",正是文章所讲的主要内容;B)"描述性统计"的起源,只 说了文章中很小的一个方面;C)"推理统计方法的局限性",文章中没有提及;D)"统计的重要性",不是本文的重点。综合比较,A)正确。

32.【答案】B。

  【译文】描述和列表与____相关?

  【试题分析】细节理解题。找到文章中相关的内容,理解其含义,然后做答。

  【详细解答】从文章的第二段可以得知,描述和列表是描述性统计方法的两种形式。再看四个选项。A)"推理性统计",没有任何关系;B)"描述性 统计",正好相关;C)"可能性理论",从第一段末可知,该理论是用于推理性统计的;D)"计算的无效",与文章内容不符。故选B)。

33.【答案】C。

  【译文】关于描述性统计下列哪一个陈述是正确的?

  【试题分析】分析判断题。对比分析,存真去伪。

  【详细解答】仔细比较四个选项。A)"它将数量变量和质量变量结合起来了",这误解了第二段中第二句话"either...or..."句型,要么是数量变量,要么是质量变量;B)"它只能用来处理数量变量",也与上面句型含义相悖;C)"它有助于总结一组数据的特征",这正是第二段最后一句话"Large masses of data... the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data."的含义;D)"它有助于使用观察抽样进行预测",这是推理性统计。所以选C)。

34.【答案】B。

  【译文】与第二段中"unwieldy" 单词意思最接近的是____

  【试题分析】猜测词义题。通过上下文的含义猜测生词的词义,将四个选项分别放到原句子中去比较也不失为一种好办法。

  【详细解答】第二段最后一句话"Large masses of data... the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data."的意思是说,大量的数据群必须要有一个总结或减收的过程,以从可能是乱七八糟的数据群中找出其特征,关键词是otherwise,表示前后有 个对比。可见后面提及的unwieldy mass of data是难以处理的数据。再看四个选项:A)"难以收集",文章没有提收集;B)"难以处理",与上下文正好相符;C)"不可理解的",前面说将它们整 理成容易理解的形式,可见它们还是"可以理解的";D)"不可控制的",与句意不符。故选B)。

35.【答案】A。

  【译文】人口抽样经常用于下列目的,哪一项除外?

  【试题分析】细节理解题。找到文章中关于人口抽样的内容,再进行比较选择。但要注意选的是除外的那一项。

  【详细解答】文章最后一段讲到抽样100个小孩来进行分析预测。A)"进行更加准确的趋势预测",抽样本身就不可能是为了更加"准确",所以A 错,应该选A。B)"提高效率,避免不必要工作",这正是抽样的作用;C)"省去找每个成员的麻烦",这也正是人口抽样的优势;D)"预测全体人群的特 征",正是人口抽样的目的。所以选A)。

好了,以上是小编整理的英语六级真题的语法部分(不含听力与作文)。在做语法题时,要注意比较选项之间的差异,多对比,其次要结合题干的语境进行思考,这样才能提高做题的正确性。如果自学吃力,不妨试试专业老师的指导,早日拿下六级。

备考课程推荐:【Uni智能】大学英语六级高效备考班